Table of contents
click on ± to expand or collapse

with heartfelt thanks for Mark 'Tarquin' Wilton-Jones              




Various details about dates of composition, duration estimates , scenes, sections and motifs.
The scenes numbering corresponds with the play; what I call III-IV is (part of) act III scene IV of the original. Evidently, I did not use all scenes, e.g. act III consists of III-I and III-IV only.


Overture music



Thunder music
--- A desert place. Thunder and lightniing. --- Enter three Witches.

When shall we three meet again music
FIRST WITCH. When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain? SECOND WITCH. When the hurlyburly's done, hurlyburly's done, When the battle's lost and won. lost and won. THIRD WITCH. That will be ere the set of sun. FIRST WITCH. Where the place? SECOND WITCH. Upon the heath. THIRD WITCH. There to meet with Macbeth Fair is foul, and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air. Hover through the filthy air. --- Exeunt. FLIGHT OF THE WITCHES – orchestral --- Change of scenery: a heath. Thunderr. --- The three Witches land. --- Drum within. THIRD WITCH. A drum, a drum! A drum, a drum! Macbeth doth come. ALL. The weird sisters, hand in hand, Posters of the sea and land, Thus do go about, about, Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, And thrice again, to make up nine. Peace! Peace! Peace! The charm's wound up.


So foul and fair a day I have not seen music
--- Enter Macbeth and Banquo. MACBETH. So foul and fair a day I have not seen. BANQUO. How far is't call'd to Forres? What are these That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, And yet are on't? MACBETH. Speak, if you can. What are you? What are you?

All hail, Macbeth music
FIRST WITCH. All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! SECOND WITCH. All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor! THIRD WITCH. All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be King shalt be King hereafter!

Banquo asks about his own future music
BANQUO. If you can look into the seeds of time, And say which grain will grow and which will not, Speak then to me, who neither beg nor fear Your favors nor your hate.

Witches' answer to Banquo music
FIRST WITCH. Hail! SECOND WITCH. Hail! THIRD WITCH. Hail! FIRST WITCH. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. SECOND WITCH. Not so happy, yet much happier. THIRD WITCH. Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none.

Witches leave Macbeth and Banquo music
THIRD WITCH. So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo! FIRST WITCH. Banquo and Macbeth, all hail! --- Witches vanish.

The earth hath bubbles as the water has music
MACBETH. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me more. By Sinel's death I know I am Thane of Glamis; But how of Cawdor? BANQUO. Would they had stay'd! Would they had stay'd! The earth hath bubbles as the water has, And these are of them. BOTH. Would they had stay'd! Would they had stay'd!

King Duncan's envoys music
--- Enter Lennox and Angus. LENNOX. The King hath happily received, Macbeth, The news of thy success! ANGUS. So we are sent To give thee, from our royal master, thanks! LENNOX. And for an earnest of a greater honor, He bade me, from him, call thee Thane of Cawdor. In which addition, hail, most worthy Thane! BANQUO. What, can the devil speak true? MACBETH. [To Lennox and Angus] Thanks for your pains. --- exeunt Lennox and Angus. [Aside.] Glamis, and Thane of Cawdor! The greatest is behind. The greatest is behind.


Lady Macbeth reads Macbeth's letter music
--- Inverness. Macbeth's castle. --- Lady Macbeth, reading a letter. LADY MACBETH. " ... they have more than mortal knowledge. These weird sisters saluted me and referred me to the coming on of time with 'Hail, King that shalt be!' This have I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of greatness, Lay it to thy heart, and farewell. "

Milk of human kindness music
LADY MACBETH. Glamis thou art, and Cawdor, and shalt be What thou art promised. Yet do I fear thy nature. It is too full o' the milk of human kindness To catch the nearest way. --- Enter Macbeth. Great Glamis! Worthy Cawdor! Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter! Thy letters have transported me beyond This ignorant present, and I feel now The future in the instant.

Lady Macbeth and Macbeth argue about
King Duncan
MACBETH. My dearest love, Duncan comes here tonight. LADY MACBETH. And when goes hence? MACBETH. Tomorrow, as he purposes. LADY MACBETH. O, never Shall sun that morrow see! Your face, my Thane, is as a book where men May read strange matters. To beguile the time, Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue; leave all the rest to me. MACBETH. We will speak further. LADY MACBETH. I do fear thy nature. It is too full o' the milk of human kindness To catch the nearest way. MACBETH. We will speak further.



Lady Macbeth alone music
--- A room in Macbeth's castle LADY MACBETH. That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold; What hath quench'd them has giv'n me fire. It was the owl that shriek'd, the fatal bellman, Which gives the stern'st good night. He is about it: The doors are open, and the surfeited grooms Do mock their charge with snores. I have drugg'd their possets I laid their daggers ready; He could not miss 'em. Had he not resembled My father as he slept, I had done't.

Macbeth has murdered sleep music
--- Enter Macbeth, LADY MACBETH. My husband! My husband! MACBETH. I have done the deed. Didst thou not hear a noise? LADY MACBETH. I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry. Did not you speak? MACBETH. When? LADY MACBETH. Now. MACBETH. As I descended I heard a voice cry, "Sleep no more! Macbeth does murther sleep" -the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the ravel'd sleave of care... "Glamis hath murther'd sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more. Macbeth shall sleep no more." LADY MACBETH. Who was it that thus cried? Go, get some water And wash this filthy witness from your hand. Why did you bring these daggers from the place? Go, you must lay them there. MACBETH. I'll go no more.

A little water clears us of this deed music
LADY MACBETH. Give me the daggers, and if he do bleed, I'll gild the faces of the grooms withal, For it must seem their guilt. --- Exit Lady Macbeth, then re-enter LADY MACBETH. My hands are of your color, but I shame To wear a heart so white. Retire we to our chamber. A little water clears us of this deed.


Duncan's murder discovered music
--- Macbeth's castle, corridor. Macdufff and Lennox. --- Enter Macbeth. ii-iiia ============================================================= MACDUFF and LENNOX. Good morrow, noble sir. MACBETH. Morrow, both. MACDUFF. Is the King stirring, worthy Thane? MACBETH. Not yet. MACDUFF. He did command me to call timely on him; I have almost slipp'd the hour. MACBETH. I'll show you to him. This is the door. --- Exit Macduff. --- Re-enter Macduff. MACDUFF. O horror, horror, horror! Awake, awake! Ring the alarum bell. Murther and treason! Banquo and Donalbain! Malcolm, awake! --- Enter Lady Macbeth. LADY MACBETH. What's the business, That such a hideous trumpet calls to parley The sleepers of the house? Speak, speak! MACDUFF. O gentle lady, 'Tis not for you to hear --- Enter Banquo. O Banquo, Banquo! Our royal master's murther'd. LADY MACBETH. Woe, alas! What, in our house? BANQUO. Too cruel anywhere.

General turmoil music
MACBETH. Had I but died an hour before this chance, I had lived a blessed time, for from this instant from this instant There's nothing serious in mortality. Renown and grace is dead ! Enter Malcolm and Donalbain. DONALBAIN. What is amiss? MACDUFF. Your royal father's murther'd. MALCOLM. Murther'd! By whom? LENNOX. Those of his chamber Their hands and faces badged with blood; So were their daggers, they were distracted Staring, and distracted ... staring, and distracted ... MACBETH. O, yet I do repent me of my fury, That I killed them. MACDUFF. Wherefore did you so? LENNOX. Wherefore did you so? MACBETH. Who can be wise, amazed, temperate and furious, Loyal and neutral, in a moment? No man. Who could refrain ?! BANQUO. And when we have our naked frailties hid, That suffer in exposure, let us meet And question this most bloody piece of work. MACBETH. Let's briefly put on manly readiness And meet i' the hall together. ALL. Well contented. --- Exeunt all but Malcolm and Donalbaiin.

Malcolm and Donalbain flee music
MALCOLM. What will you do? Let's not consort with them. To show an unfelt sorrow is an office Which the false man does easy. I'll to England, to England. DONALBAIN. To Ireland, I; for where we are There's daggers in men's smiles; the near in blood, The nearer bloody. MALCOLM. Therefore to horse; And let us not be dainty of leave-taking, But shift away, shift away. --- Exeunt.



Banquo alone music
--- Forres. The palace. --- Enter Banquo. BANQUO. Thou hast it now: King, Cawdor, Glamis, all, As the weird women promised, and I fear Thou play'dst most foully for't; May they not be my oracles as well And set me up in hope? But hush, no more, --- Sennet sounds. hush, no more.

Banquo invited to feast music
--- Enter Macbeth as King, Lady Macbeth as Queen, Lords, --- Ladies, and Attendants. MACBETH. Here's our chief guest. LADY MACBETH. If he had been forgotten, It had been as a gap in our great feast And all thing unbecoming. MACBETH. Tonight we hold a solemn supper, sir, And I'll request your presence. BANQUO. Let your Highness Command upon me.

Ride you this afternoon? music
MACBETH. Ride you this afternoon? BANQUO. Ay, my good lord. MACBETH. I wish your horses swift and sure of foot, Goes Fleance with you? BANQUO. Ay, my good lord. MACBETH. Farewell. --- Exit Banquo.

All invited music
MACBETH. Fail not our feast. ALL. Let your Highness Command upon us. MACBETH. Let every man be master of his time Till seven at night; while then, God be with you! --- Exeunt all, except Macbeth.

Our fears in Banquo music
MACBETH. Our fears in Banquo ! There is none but he Whose being I do fear. He chid the sisters When first they put the name of King upon me And bade them speak to him; then prophet-like They hail'd him father to a line of kings. For Banquo's issue I defiled my mind, For them the gracious Duncan have I murther'd, To make them kings -- the seed of Banquo kings!! It is concluded: Banquo, thy soul's flight, If it find heaven, must find it out tonight.


Guests enter music
--- A Hall in the palace. A banquet preppared. --- Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Lords, Ladiess MACBETH. You know your own degrees; sit down. At first And last the hearty welcome. ALL. Thanks to your Majesty. LADY MACBETH. Your humble hostess! welcome most noble peers! --- Procession. Guests take their seats,, greeted by Macbeth and Lady Macbeth

Murtherer announces Banquo's death music
--- Enter Murtherer to the door. MACBETH. There's blood upon thy face. MURTHERER. 'Tis Banquo's then. MACBETH. 'Tis better thee without than he within. Is he dispatch'd? MURTHERER. My lord, his throat is cut; That I did for him. MACBETH. Who did the like for Fleance? MURTHERER. Most royal sir, Fleance is escaped. MACBETH. I had else been perfect, Whole as the marble, founded as the rock, As broad and general as the casing air; But now I am cabin'd, cribb'd, confin'd, bound in To saucy doubts and fears - But Banquo's safe? MURTHERER. Ay, my good lord. Safe in a ditch he bides. --- Macbeth dismisses Murtherer. Exitt Murtherer.

Banquo's ghost enters, then leaves music
--- The Ghost of Banquo enters and sitss in Macbeth's place. MACBETH. Avaunt, and quit my sight! Let the earth hide thee! Thy bones are marrowless, thy blood is cold; Thou hast no speculation in those eyes Which thou dost glare with. --- commotion, guests rise LADY MACBETH. Sit, worthy friends; my lord is often thus, And hath been from his youth. Pray you, keep seat. --- Aside to Macbeth O proper stuff! You look but on a stool. MACBETH. Approach thou like the rugged Russian bear, The arm'd rhinoceros, and my firm nerves Shall never tremble. Take any shape but that! Or be alive again, And dare me to the desert with thy sword. Hence, horrible shadow! Unreal mockery, hence! --- Exit Ghost.

The royal pair pretends nothing happened music
MACBETH. Why, being gone, I am a man again. Give me some wine, fill full. Pray you sit still. Bring wine, more wine! wine! Fill full! Do not muse at me, my most worthy friends. I have a strange infirmity, which is nothing To those that know me. Come, love and health to all! GUESTS: Love and health to all! LADY MACBETH. Think of this, good peers, But as a thing of custom. 'Tis no other, But spoils our pleasure...

Ghost returns; Macbeth's terror music
--- Banquo's ghost returns MACBETH. Can you see such sights And keep the natural ruby of your cheeks When mine is blanch'd with fear? ALL. What sights, my lord? What sights, my lord? What sights, my lord? What sights? LADY MACBETH. --- Aside to Macbeth You have displaced the mirth, broke the good meeting! --- to the assembly Speak not, I pray you; he grows worse and worse; Question enrages him. At once, good night. Stand not upon the order of your going, But go at once. I pray you go at once. ALL. Good night, and better health Attend his Majesty! --- Procession. Guests leave.



Cauldron song music
--- A cavern. In the middle, a boiling cauldron. Thunder. --- The three Witches. FIRST WITCH. Round about the cauldron go; In the poison'd entrails throw. Eye of newt and toe of frog, Wool of bat and tongue of dog. ALL. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. SECOND WITCH. Fillet of a fenny snake, In the cauldron boil and bake; For a charm of powerful trouble, Like a hell-broth boil and bubble. ALL. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble.


THIRD WITCH. Scale of ravin'd salt-sea shark, Root of hemlock digg'd i' the dark, Liver of blaspheming Jew, Gall of goat and slips of yew; ALL. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. SECOND WITCH. By the pricking of my thumbs, Something wicked this way comes. Open, locks, Whoever knocks!

Enter Macbeth, Hecate music
--- Enter Macbeth. MACBETH. I conjure you, by that which you profess -- Howeer you come to know it -- answer me: To what I ask you. FIRST WITCH. We shall. SECOND WITCH. We shall. THIRD WITCH. We'll answer. --- while triple Hecate appears. WITCHES. We know thy thought: Hear our speech, but say thou nought.

apparitions music
--- First Apparition: an armed Head. HECATE, WITCHES. Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Beware Macduff! Beware the Thane of Fife! --- apparition vanishes --- Second Apparition: a bloody Child. HECATE, WITCHES. Be bloody, bold, and resolute: laugh to scorn The power of man, for none of woman born Shall ever harm Macbeth. --- apparition vanishes MACBETH. Then live, Macduff. But I will make assurance double sure, And take a bond of fate: thou shalt not live! --- Third Apparition: a Child crowned, wwith a tree in his hand.
HECATE, WITCHES. Macbeth shall never vanquish'd be until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill Shall come against him. --- apparition vanishes MACBETH. That will never be. Who can impress the forest, bid the tree Unfix his earth-bound root? And yet my heart Throbs to know one thing: tell me, if your art Can tell so much, shall Banquo's issue ever Reign in this kingdom? ALL. Seek to know no more. MACBETH. I will be satisfied! Deny me this, And an eternal curse fall on you! FIRST WITCH. Show! SECOND WITCH. Show! THIRD WITCH. Show! ALL. Show his eyes, and grieve his heart; Come, come come like shadows, like shadows, so depart!

Procession of kings music
--- A procession of Kings, with Banquo's Ghost MACBETH. They are too like the spirit of Banquo. Down! Their crowns do sear mine eyeballs. What, will the line stretch out to the crack of doom? --- Macbeth crumbles on a rock. Another yet! And more ! and some I see That twofold balls and treble sceptres carry. Horrible, horrible sight! Now I see 'tis true; For the blood-bolter'd Banquo smiles upon me, 'tis true for Banquo smiles upon me! --- During Macbeth's aria and interlude the scene grow dark, then, light again. --- Now Macbeth is on his throne, in a palace room, still in a crumbled position. --- Knocks at the door.

Lennox announces Macduff has fled music
MACBETH. Come in, without there! --- Enter Lennox. LENNOX. Lord, they bring you word Macduff is fled to England. MACBETH. Fled to England? LENNOX. Ay, my good lord. --- exit Lennox MACBETH. [Aside.] Time, thou anticipatest my dread exploits.

(optional) Witches reappear music
--- The witches and Hecate appear: WITCHES AND HECATE But why, but why, but why, Stands Macbeth thus amazedly? Come,sisters, cheer we up his sprites And show the best of our delights. Let's charm the air to give a sound, While we perform our antic round.

(optional) Witches minuet music
--- All dance the Witches Minuet around Macbeth, then disappear. Scene becomes completely dark.


In England, Malcolm, Macduff and Lennox decide to fight Macbeth music
--- A castle in England. Malcolm and Maccduff. Enter Lennox. MACDUFF. My ever gentle cousin, welcome hither. Stands Scotland where it did? LENNOX. Alas, poor country, Cannot be call'd our mother, but our grave. The dead man's knell is there scarce ask'd for who, And good men's lives do wilt before the flowers in their caps! MACDUFF. What's the newest grief? LENNOX. Your castle is surprised; your wife and babes Savagely slaughter'd. To relate the manner Were, on the quarry of these murther'd deer, To add the death of you. MALCOLM. Dispute it like a man.
MACDUFF. I shall do so, But I must also feel it as a man. That were most precious to me. Did heaven look on, And would not take their part? Sinful Macduff, They were all struck for thee! Heaven rest them now! MALCOLM. Be this the whetstone of your sword. Let grief blunt not the heart, enrage it. MACDUFF. Gentle heavens, Cut short all intermission; front to front Bring thou this fiend of Scotland and myself; Within my sword's length set him; if he 'scape, Heaven forgive him too! MALCOLM. This tune goes manly. Macbeth is ripe for shaking, powers above Put on their instruments. Receive what cheer you may, The night is long that never finds the day. --- Exeunt.



Yet here's a spot music
--- Dunsinane. Anteroom in the castle. --- A Doctor of Physic and a Waiting Genntlewoman. --- Enter Lady Macbeth with a taper. LADY MACBETH. Yet here's a spot. Yet here's a spot. Yet here's a spot. DOCTOR. You see, her eyes are open. GENTLEWOMAN. Ay, but their sense is shut. DOCTOR. Look how she rubs her hands. GENTLEWOMAN. It is an accustomed action with her, to seem thus washing her hands. LADY MACBETH. Out, damned spot! Out, I say!

Fie, my lord music
LADY MACBETH. Fie, my lord, fie! A soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account? Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him? The Thane of Fife had a wife; where is she now? What, will these hands neer be clean? GENTLEWOMAN. Heaven knows what she has known.

All the perfumes of Arabia music
LADY MACBETH. Here's the smell of the blood still. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh-oh-oh! DOCTOR. What a sigh is there! The heart is sorely charged. This disease is beyond my practice. More needs she the divine than the physician. LADY MACBETH. Wash your hands, put on your nightgown, look not so pale. I tell you yet again, Banquo's buried; he cannot come out on's grave. To bed, to bed; there's knocking at the gate. Come, come, give me your hand. What's done cannot be undone. To bed, to bed, to bed. --- Exit.


Scottish rebel army music
--- The country near Dunsinane. Drum annd colors. Enter Angus, Lennox, and Soldiers. LENNOX. The English power is near, led on by Malcolm, His uncle Siward, and the good Macduff. Revenge burns in them, and the grim alarm Excite the mortified man. ANGUS. Birnam Wood Is where we meet them. LENNOX. But what does the tyrant? ANGUS. Great Dunsinane he strongly fortifies. Some say he's mad; others, that lesser hate him, Do call it valiant fury. LENNOX. Now he feels His secret murthers sticking on his hands! Those he commands move only in command, Nothing in love. Now does he know his title Hang loose about him, like a giant's robe Upon a dwarfish thief. ANGUS. Well, march we on To give obedience where 'tis truly owed.

Soldier's chorus music
SOLDIERS. Make me our march to Birnam Birnam wood. March towards Birnam wood. A soldier, a soldier As soldiers will Full of strange oaths and bearded Like the pard. Jealous in honor Jealous in honor Sudden and quick to brawl Seeking, seeking the bubble Reputation. --- Exeunt marching.

Tree bough stratagem music
Country near Birnam Wood. Drum and colors. --- Re-enter the previous --- Enter English force led bby Malcolm MALCOLM. What wood is this before us? ANGUS. The Wood of Birnam. MALCOLM. Let every soldier hew him down a bough, And bear't before him; thereby shall we shadow The numbers of our host, and make discovery Err in report of us. SOLDIERS. It shall be done. --- Exeunt Marching.

Death of Lady Macbeth music
--- Dunsinane castle. --- Macbeth sitting alone inside. --- A cry of women within. MACBETH. Wherefore that cry? --- enter Doctor. DOCTOR. The Queen, my lord, is dead. MACBETH. She should have died hereafter...


Tomorrow and tomorrow
MACBETH. Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time; And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing. --- resolutely I will not be afraid of death and bane I said, I will not be afraid of death and bane Till Birnam Forest come to Dunsinane.

Macbeth decides to withstand siege music
--- Scenery drapery lifts up, showing sooldiers on parade. --- Macbeth addresses his troops MACBETH. Hang out our banners on the outward walls; The cry is still, "They come!" Our castle's strength Will laugh a siege to scorn. Here let them lie Till famine and the ague eat them up. --- Soldiers repeat text above

Birnam wood moving
Macbeth decides on sortie
--- Enter a Messenger. MACBETH. Thou comest to use thy tongue; thy story quickly. MESSENGER. As I did stand my watch upon the hill, I look'd toward Birnam, and anon, methought, The Wood began to move. MACBETH. Liar and slave! MESSENGER. Let me endure your wrath, if't be not so. Within this three mile may you see it coming; I say, a moving grove. MACBETH. I now begin To doubt the equivocation of the fiend That lies like truth. "Fear not, fear not till Birnam Wood Do come to Dunsinane," and now a wood Comes toward Dunsinane. Arm, arm, and out! Arm, arm, and out! I 'gin to be aweary of the sun And wish the estate o' the world were now undone. Ring the alarum bell! Blow, wind! Come, wrack! At least we'll die with harness on our back. --- Exeunt.

(optional) Soldiers march out music
SOLDIERS: Arm, arm, and out!


Battle outside Dunsinane castle —
orchestral interlude

Macduff kills Macbeth music
--- Fighting outside Dunsinane castle. --- Macbeth dispatches one or two opponeents; but Malcolm's --- troops attack and chase Macbeth's sooldiers off scene. --- Macbeth is left alone. MACBETH. They have tied me to a stake; I cannot fly, But bear-like I must fight the course. Why should I play the Roman fool and die On mine own sword? Whiles I see lives, the gashes Do better upon them. --- Enter Macduff. MACDUFF. Turn, hell hound, turn! MACBETH. Of all men else I have avoided thee. But get thee back, my soul is too much charged With blood of thine already. MACDUFF. I have no words. My voice is in my sword, --- They fight.
MACBETH. Thou losest labor. I bear a charmed life, which cannot yield To one of woman born. MACDUFF. Despair thy charm, And know, Macduff was from his mother's womb Untimely ripp'd. --- Macbeth hesitates now Then yield thee, coward! --- Macbeth attacks MACBETH. I will not yield! Though Birnam Wood be come to Dunsinane, And thou opposed, being of no woman born, Yet I will try the last. Lay on, Macduff, And damn'd be him that first cries, "Hold, enough!" --- Macbeth and Macduff fight. Nothing iis heard, --- except the clash of weapons.

finale – a capella music
--- The choir, unseen, starts pianissimoo 'hurly burly'� these are the only words. Macbeth is slain. --- At this point the two actors freeze,, and the scenery curtain lifts to show the choir --- and all the principals, motionless, continuing with 'hurly burly'. --- The three witches enter, sing and daance. WITCHES. When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain? --- All ends in silence and dark.